Precision respiratory medicine in clinical practice: at the balance between facts and trivia

Approximately half of the smoking population is considered susceptible to, and will develop, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)(1). However, the risk of developing COPD is about 23% lower in active smokers with moderate to high levels of physical activity, compared to inactive smokers (2). Once chronic airflow limitation has developed, lung cancer is up to ...

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